What Is Robotics?
Robotics is a department of applied science that deals with the design, production, and application of automated technical systems – robots. A robot is a programmable mechanical device that can operate without human assistance.
Acting on a pre-laid program and receiving information about the external world from sensors (analogs of the senses of living organisms), the robot independently carries out production and other operations, usually performed by humans or animals.
In this case, the robot can both have a connection with the operator (receive commands from him), and act autonomously.
Matrix is widely used in robotics and science. To get the right calculation done, give a try to the matrix multiplication calculator. And further you can also calculate the determinant of the matrix using a determinant calculator online.
Robots are manipulative and mobile:
- A manipulator with several degrees of mobility and a software device is responsible for the execution of the actions of the manipulation robot. Manipulation robots are widely used in the engineering and instrument-making industries.
- A mobile robot is more mobile than a manipulative one since it has a moving chassis with automatically controlled drives – the “muscles” of the robots.
- Furthermore, classification of mobile robotics by type of movement
- In addition, modern robots, created on the basis of the latest achievements of science and technology, are used in all spheres of human activity. The appearance and design of modern robots can be very diverse.
Robotics can move on any surface, in water, and in the air. So, according to the type of movement, robots are:
- Wheeled and tracked (the most common type of robots);
- Walking ;
- Flying – autopilots and unmanned aerial vehicles;
- Creepers – move according to the principle of snakes and worms and are used to search for people under the rubble of collapsed buildings;
- Swimming – move in the water, imitating the movements of fish, and thus become silent and very maneuverable;
- Moving on vertical surfaces – they act on the principle of a person, climbing a wall with the help of protrusions, or with the help of special suction cups.
- The leaders in the production of robots at the moment are the companies FANUC (Japan), KUKA (Germany), and ABB (Sweden, Switzerland). Each robot includes the following basic components: The frame or body of the robot;
- Control block;
Elements and structure
The body, also known as the frame of a robot, is able to be any shape or size. In the beginning, the frame or body is responsible for the structure of the robot. The majority of users are aware of humanoid robotics used in filming films, however, in actuality, the majority of robots have nothing to do with human-like appearance. (NASA’s Roboonaft, presented in the preceding section, is a notable exception.) A typical design for robotics is more focused on function than appearance.
Control System robots are similar to humans’ central nervous systems. Sensors respond to the interactions of the robot with its external environment. The sensor’s responses are transmitted into the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU analyzes the data using software and makes decisions in a logical manner. The same thing happens when you input an individual command.
To accomplish an activity, the majority of robots are able to interact with their outside environment in addition to the external world. Sometimes, they need to move objects from the outside environment with no direct involvement from the operators. Manipulators do not form part of the structure of the robot as it is a frame or body system, i.e., the robot is able to work without the use of a manipulator. This course is focused on manipulators, specifically Unit 6.
Although some robots are able to perform tasks with no change of location, however, most robots need to be mobile from one location to another. In order to accomplish this, the robot requires an undercarriage.
The undercarriage is an instrument for driving. Humanoid robots come with legs, whereas the chassis of most other robots use wheels.
The robot can be of any shape and size. It is the frame or body of the robot that is the basis of its design and determines its appearance. The average person at the word “robot” represents a humanoid being made of metal. This image has been imposed by numerous science fiction films.
The functionality of robots is the main
In fact, most robots are completely unlike humans. The main thing for a robot is its functionality, not how it looks.
Control over the work of the robot is carried out using a control system. It includes a huge number of sensors that help technology communicate with the outside world.
The robot control system assumes a whole set of algorithms, thanks to which certain tasks are solved. In the work of the robot, there is a constant exchange of data between sensors and the central processing unit (CPU). Algorithms and software are created by humans.
A manipulator is used for physical contact with objects of the external environment. This element is optional. Generally, the arm is not part of the robot frame/body. It is used to solve specific problems in various industries.
The chassis of the robot is also optional and is available only for those robots that need to move in space. Wheels are most often used as a means of moving.
Applications of robotics
Robots are used in a wide variety of areas, but the main ones are the following:
- Industry: industrial robots;
- Research activities: robotic scientists, researchers;
- Combat robots: unmanned aerial vehicles, sapper robots, security, and safety;
- Nanotechnology: micro-and nano-robots for research and medical purposes;
- Home technologies: household robots, vacuum cleaners, window cleaners, and personal.
- In the industrial sector, robots allow you to perform a large amount of work with high speed and accuracy. They allow you to solve such problems that cannot be dealt with by human forces.
- Many places on our planet and beyond have not been explored for the reason that it is impossible for a person to do this. For example, we know about what is happening in the depths of the ocean and in space thanks to robotic researchers.
- The growth of innovative technologies allows us to look optimistically to the future. As a result, robotics is developing rapidly, opening up new opportunities for humanity.