Salmonella Typhi causes typhoid fever, which is a contagious disease (S. Typhi). Fever, vomiting, and diarrhea are common symptoms of the disease, which are widespread in Southeast Asia and Africa. According to estimates from the global burden of illness, S. Typhi caused 10.9 million new cases and 116.8 thousand deaths in 2017.
South Asia was perhaps the most impacted region, with 72 percent of global cases and 70 percent of deaths due to typhoid. Children aged 5–9 years old had the highest rates of morbidity and mortality (56 percent of cases and 59 percent of deaths), followed by children aged less than 5 people aged (12.6 percent of cases and 17 percent of deaths). While the global burden of S. Typhi and related mortality has decreased since 1990, antibiotic resistance in S. Typhi has remained a global epidemic
If you’re going to a part of the world where typhoid fever is frequent, you should get a typhoid fever vaccine.
Areas of high risk
Typhoid fever can be found all around the world, but it’s more common in regions with inadequate sanitation and hygiene.
The following are examples of high-risk areas:
- The subcontinent of India
- Asia’s south and southeast
- South America is a continent in South America.
- If you’ll be staying or working with locals, or if you’ll be staying for an extended amount of time in locations where hygiene and food cleanliness are likely to be poor, vaccination is strongly advised.
- The majority of people in the UK who contract typhoid fever do so while visiting India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh. If you’re traveling these nations, it’s especially crucial that you be vaccinated.
- Typhoid vaccine is frequently available for free from GP offices on the NHS. The vaccine is also available for around £30 at private travel clinics.
The following are the two primary vaccinations available in the UK to prevent typhoid fever:
- The Vi vaccination is administered as a single injection.
- Ty21a vaccine is provided in the form of three capsules to be taken on alternate days
- For adults aged 15 and up, combined cholera and hepatitis A shots are also available. Hepatitis A protection lasts one year, and typhoid protection lasts three years.
- The vaccines work by prompting your body to produce antibodies (infection-fighting proteins) that protect you from becoming ill if you contract typhoid
- However, neither typhoid vaccine is 100 percent effective, so people should always be cautious when eating or drinking water when traveling.
- Because the Ty21a vaccine includes a live specimen of Salmonella bacteria, it is not recommended for persons who have a weaker immune system, such as HIV patients or those undergoing chemotherapy.
- It’s also not normally suggested for children under the age of 5, but the Vi vaccination can be given to youngsters as young as two years old.
- It’s unknown if the Vi and Ty21a vaccinations pose a risk to women who are pregnant or nursing. However, if there is a high risk of contracting typhoid fever, immunization should be explored.
- The typhoid immunization should be administered at least one month before people travel, although it can be taken closer to your departure date if necessary.
- If you remain to be at risk of typhoid infection, booster immunizations are suggested every three years.
- Vaccine against typhoid illness has side effects.
- Some patients experience transient discomfort, redness, swelling, or hardness just at the injection site after receiving the typhoid shot side effect fever vaccine.
- A high temperature affects about one out of every 100 persons.
The following are some of the less prevalent adverse effects:
Both typhoid vaccinations have a low risk of severe responses. Learn more about routine vaccines provided by the NHS.
It’s necessary to take basic measures when traveling in areas where typhoid is present, whether or not you’ve been vaccinated.
Consider the following scenario:
- Only drink water from a properly sealed bottle of water that has recently been boiled.
- Prevent ice cream and ice in your beverages.
- Unless you’ve cleaned them in safe drinking water and peeled them yourself, avoid raw fruit and vegetables.
- Shellfish, seafood, and salads should be avoided.
The world’s largest epidemic of multidrug (XDR) Typhoid is occurring in Pakistan. In 2018, a Typhoid Composite Vaccine (Typbar-TCV®) vaccination program for children aged 6 months to 10 years was conducted in high-risk districts of Hyderabad. A total of 207,000 children were immunized. During the campaign, we documented the adverse events following immunization (AEFI).
The outreach and fixed-center strategies were used to carry out the campaign. Community mobilizers went door to door to complete line listing and mobilize parents of children who were eligible for the program. Following vaccination, the children were watched for 30 minutes. The AEFI was determined using a two-pronged technique. All families (n = 199,861) were given a 24-hour hotline number to call to report AEFI within 14 days of immunization. At days 7 and 14, a time of life (n = 7139 children) were actively monitored to determine AEFI. Three certified medical officers inspected each AEFI.
The AEFI was recorded using a structured questionnaire based on Brighton cooperation criteria with level three diagnostic confidence. Excel Spreadsheets Office 365 was used to analyze the data. In total, 499 AEFI were seen (433 in the subset actively watched and 66 self-reported through hotline). AEFI was substantially more common in very young children (ages 6 to 12 months) than in children aged 2 to 3 years (0.54 percent vs. 0.33 percent, respectively; p-value 0.001).
Fever was the most prevalent AEFI self-reported through a helpline (38/199,861 = 0.02%) and among the subset actively tracked for 14 days (206/7139 = 2.89%). Through ego hotline and active follow-up, fever was tracked by local reactogenicity 10/199,861 (0.01%) and 134/7139 (1.88 percent). There were no signs of significant AEFI. During an outbreak in Hyderabad, Pakistan, a single dose of Typbar-TCV was administered to children aged 6 weeks to 10 years old and was found to be safe.
AEFI stands for adverse events after vaccination; XDR stands for extensively drug-resistant typhoid; TCV stands for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; S.Typhi stands for Salmonella Typhi; WHO stands for World Health; EPI stands for the expanded programmed on immunization. GAVI stands for the Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunization; IV stands for intravenous; ERC stands for the ethical review committee; NBC stands for the National Bioethics Committee.
DG health, General Director Health; DC, Deputy Commissioner; Vi-DT, whooping cough toxoid conjugated vi-polysaccharide vaccine; ViCPS, Vi ligamentous polysaccharide vaccine; DG health, Director General Health; DG health, Director General Health; DG health, Director General Health; DG health, Director General Health; DG health, Director General Health; DG health, Director General Health; DG health, Director General Health; DG MDR stands for Multi-Drug Resistant; SEAP is for Surveillance of Enteric Fever in Asia Project.
Pakistan, which is located in South Asia, has one of the highest typhoid fever burdens in the region. In Pakistan, more than 90% of S. Typhoid shot side effects strains are fluoroquinolone-resistant and 50% are multidrug-resistant. In November 2016, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, saw an outbreak of extensively drug-resistant S. Typhi (XDR = immune to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporin). The outbreak began in two Hyderabad sub-districts and quickly expanded throughout the city, as well as to other towns in Pakistan.
There have been about 5000 cases of XDR S. Typhi recorded so far. More than 90% of XDR typhoid cases are in children under the age of 15, with 70% of cases occurring in children under the age of 10. The XDR S. Typhi outbreak in Hyderabad resulted in a considerable reduction in available treatment choices, resulting in a higher frequency of hospitalizations and treatment costs. In this context, mass vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (TCV) appeared to be the quickest and most effective way to stop the outbreak.
As part of the emergency service, the Aga Khan University Karachi, in cooperation with the Government of Health Sindh, launched a mass immunization campaign targeting kids aged 6 months to 10 years old with typhoid shot side effects conjugate flu shot (Typbar-TCV® produced by Bharat Biotech International Limited). The only TCV vaccine prequalification by the World Health Organization (WHO) is Typbar-TCV®, which contains polysaccharide S. Typhi Ty2 conjugated to Toxoids. Topbar-TCV® has been shown to be extremely effective and safe in children between the ages of 6 months and older, but its safety in a population-wide campaign context has yet to be determined.
As a result, this is the first inhabitant’s safety data from a Typbar-TCV® campaign setting, providing vital evidence for policymakers practitioners in developing countries where typhus is still endemic. The findings have implications for GAVI, the vaccine alliance, and GAVI-eligible nations in terms of incorporating TCV into their extended immunization programmed (EPI). In this paper, we describe the adverse outcomes following Typbar-TCV vaccination (AEFI) in kids aged months to 10 years old inside an outbreak setting in Hyderabad, Pakistan.