Generally, air conditioner works very simply. For comparison: it is enough to drop water on the skin while it evaporates, you feel cold. The principle of a domestic air conditioner is the same: the refrigerant circulates, cools and heats up. We understand how the air conditioner works in the apartment, what is a split system and what it consists of.
An air conditioner is also famouse as a split system. It consists of two blocks: outdoor and indoor. The first is mounted on the wall from the side of the street, and the second – indoors. Together they make up a closed system of refrigerant movement – the working substance of the air conditioner.
The main assembly of the Air Conditioner.
- compressor. Compresses the refrigerant, which is heated during compression, and keeps it moving along the refrigeration circuit;
- capacitor. Radiator is located in the outdoor unit. In it, gaseous freon, being cooled by blowing with street air, condenses to a liquid state;
- throttling device. Reduces pressure by lowering the temperature of the refrigerant;
- evaporator. Radiator is located in the indoor unit. It is opposite in principle to the condenser: in it, freon evaporates when the temperature rises;
- fans. Provide heat exchange of the internal and external units of the air conditioner with the environment;
- copper pipes through which the refrigerant circulates.
Outdoor unit device.
The outer part of the air conditioner is on the wall from the street side. This allows you to ensure the removal of heat from the room and reduce the noise level in it. The outdoor unit consists of several basic parts:
- fan. In simple models, it has one rotation speed. Expensive options involve several speeds or smooth adjustment;
- capacitor. Home air conditioners use air-cooled condensers;
- compressor. There is a classic rotary and two-rotor. The latter is distinguished by the almost complete absence of vibrations;
- throttling device. In-home air conditioners, it looks like a capillary tube or an electronic expansion valve;
- control board. In the external module, it is only on inverter air conditioners.
Indoor unit device.
The indoor unit is part of the split system, which is located in the room. It includes:
- decorative front panel of the case. Behind it are air filters and an evaporator (heat exchanger).
- coarse filter. A mesh that catches large particles at the entrance to the indoor unit: wool, hair, dust;
- fine filters;
- fan. Unlike the fan of the outdoor unit, as a rule, it has several speeds;
- evaporator. It is a copper tube with aluminum fins;
- horizontal blinds. Movable elements of the block, which can control using the remote control. They direct the airflow in the right direction vertically;
- vertical blinds. In almost all domestic split systems, they can only be adjusted manually. Direct the airflow horizontally;
- Control block. A control board is installed in a protected plastic box, to which the starting elements of motors and sensors are connected;
- indicator panel. It is located on the front panel of the air conditioner and demonstrates the status of the equipment;
- drainage bath. A tray into which condensate flows from the surface of the heat exchanger. Then the condensate is discharged into the sewer or outside through the drain pipe.
You can install several indoor units in the apartment. However, they can be connected to one outdoor unit.
Operating principle of the AC.
The basis of the process is the feature of liquids absorbing heat during evaporation and give it away during condensation. The refrigerant circulates in the air conditioner, which, depending on temperature and pressure, changes its state of aggregation, that is, it becomes either a gas or a liquid.
The four basic units – compressor, condenser, throttling device and evaporator – are interconnected by tubes that create a refrigeration circuit, inside which the refrigerant moves.
The low-temperature refrigerant gas enters the compressor from the evaporator. The compressor compresses the gas, simultaneously increasing the pressure and temperature of the gaseous refrigerant. The hot refrigerant then enters the condenser under high pressure. In the condenser, the gas cools down, because it is blown by a stream of colder air and turns into a liquid, giving off heat.
Next, the refrigerant enters the throttling device. In this area, it is somewhat warmer than atmospheric air, is in a liquid state and under high pressure. In the process of passing through the throttling device, the pressure of the refrigerant drops sharply. This is accompanied by a decrease in its temperature.
At the end of the cycle, the refrigerant returns to the evaporator. The refrigerant becomes a gas again, taking heat out of the room. And this cycle is repeated as long as the air conditioner is on.
How to avoid breakdown?
Perhaps one of the most difficult problems in the operation of a split system is the refrigerant that has not had time to turn into gas. From the evaporator, the liquid enters the compressor inlet, and since the liquid is an incompressible substance, a water hammer occurs. The main reason for the breakdown is the contamination of the filters of the indoor unit, the clogging of the surface of the condenser of the outdoor unit with poplar fluff. Therefore, prevention is needed: air conditioner maintenance service for regular cleaning and scheduled inspections by air conditioner cleaning and service.
If you follow simple rules with the help of AC repair services, the split system will last for many years, providing reliable and flawless air conditioning.